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Read more The Great Wall of China is a series of fortifications made of stone, brick, tamped earth, wood, and other materials, generally built along an east-to-west line across .,English.china.com is a one-stop shop for everything about China – news, events, culture, people, lifestyle, language. It also provides information about traveling .,China has had a remarkable period of rapid growth shifting from a centrally planned to a market based economy. Today, China is an upper middle-income country that has .

Read more '', .,English.china.com is a one-stop shop for everything about China – news, events, culture, people, lifestyle, language. It also provides information about traveling .,The Great Wall of China is a series of fortifications made of stone, brick, tamped earth, wood, and other materials, generally built along an east-to-west line across .

Read more The top ranked international business school based in China – CEIBS is ranked worldwide as one of the top 30 business schools providing full and part time MBA, EMBA .,Результаты поиска,A blog about Chinese aid, trade, loans, and investment in Africa

Business2018/09/13 09:44:11September 13 2018 12:10:45

BMW spokesman, Alexander Schmuck, has announced that the company will stop selling its diesel-powered cars in American market next year. He was speaking at the press preview for the company's redesigned 2019 X5 crossover SUV in Atlanta.

China2018/09/13 09:42:25September 13 2018 12:10:45

Chinese President Xi Jinping and Russian President Vladimir Putin visited All-Russian Children's Center "Ocean" in Vladivostok, Russia on Wednesday to promote friendship between the two countries' youths.

China2018/09/12 10:13:57September 13 2018 12:10:45

The Fourth China Tibet Tourism and Culture Expo has attracted nearly 90 billion yuan (13 billion U.S. dollars) of investment, the organizer said Tuesday.

Business2018/09/12 10:09:34September 13 2018 12:10:45

Apple Inc is likely to suffer greatly from the ongoing China-US trade tension, as experts said moving production of its iPhones from China to the United States could lead to a price rise of as much as 20 percent.

China2018/09/11 15:28:15September 13 2018 12:10:45

A report on China's outbound tourism recently released by China Tourism Academy and online travel service Ctrip shows that 71.3 million Chinese traveled abroad in the first six months this year, up by 15 percent year on year.

China2018/09/11 15:26:11September 13 2018 12:10:45

Beijing Internet Court, the second of its kind in China, was set up to protect business transactions, personal information, and intellectual property online.

Sports2018/09/11 10:57:33September 13 2018 12:10:45

The first ever National Sailing League of China will be launched this year.

China2018/09/11 09:21:30September 13 2018 12:10:45

A safe travel initiative aimed at raising awareness of traveling safely and providing humanitarian aid during travels was launched Monday in Beijing.

China2018/09/11 09:20:49September 13 2018 12:10:45

Chinese regulators have decided to launch a nationwide safety overhaul of ride-hailing platforms amid concerns that the web-based services may bring more risks than convenience.

Business2018/09/10 14:32:22September 13 2018 12:10:45

Recent stats show that sales of Chinese cars are picking up steam in Russia after years of sluggish growth.

Business2018/09/10 14:30:43September 13 2018 12:10:45

According to data released by the National Bureau of Statistics on Monday, China's consumer price index (CPI), a main gauge of inflation, rose 2.3 percent year on year in August, compared with 2.1 percent for July.

World2018/09/10 09:54:34September 13 2018 12:10:45

A baby elephant with its trunk missing has been spotted at the Kruger National Park in South Africa, causing people to worry for its safety.

China2018/09/10 09:50:52September 13 2018 12:10:45

Chinese cargo ship Tian En docked in the Dutch port of Eemshaven Sunday on its maiden voyage across the Arctic region to deliver wind power equipment to France, the Netherlands and Sweden.

China2018/09/09 08:46:07September 13 2018 12:10:45

Visiting Chinese State Councilor and Foreign Minister Wang Yi met with Pakistani Army Chief General Qamar Javed Bajwa on the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) and regional issues, especially the peace process in Afghanistan on Saturday.

World2018/09/09 08:45:18September 13 2018 12:10:45

The Egyptian-U.S. joint military exercise known as "the Bright Star" kicked off on Saturday at a military base in Egypt's seaside province of Alexandria, the Egyptian state TV reported.

China2018/09/08 09:29:27September 13 2018 12:10:45

China's leading train maker on Friday released its new-generation carbon-fiber light rail train at an exhibition held in Changchun, capital of northeast China's Jilin Province.

World2018/09/08 09:27:19September 13 2018 12:10:45

George Papadopoulos, a former Trump campaign aide, was sentenced Friday to 14 days in prison for lying to federal investigators during the Russia probe.

World2018/09/07 10:23:03September 13 2018 12:10:45

Brazilian presidential candidate Jair Bolsonaro was in grave condition after being hospitalized for stab wound, local media reported on Thursday.

China2018/09/07 07:56:48September 13 2018 12:10:45

Construction of a bridge section of a highway linking south China's Shenzhen and Zhongshan started Thursday, the Guangdong provincial transportation group said.

Business2018/09/06 09:26:21September 13 2018 12:10:45

On Wednesday Chinese technology company Baidu Inc. and automaker BYD announced their plan that aims to start mass producing self-driving cars in three years' time, reports Tencent News ArtCAM 8.1 CRACK

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China is the planet’s most populous country and second largest by land mass. Its civilization is one of the world’s oldest, and it has maintained an advanced economy for two millennia. A single-party socialist state, China has been governed by the Communist Party since the establishment of the People’s Republic of China in 1949 under Mao Zedong, who would usher in both the Cultural Revolution and the Great Leap Forward.

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Editor’s note: This is one in a series of articles looking at Chinese involvement in Africa. Also read about infrastructure deals and business opportunities.

In late June, top military officials from Mali, Sierra Leone, South Sudan and dozens of other African countries gathered to discuss defense strategies and security threats.

The meeting didn’t take place in a major African city, but thousands of kilometers away, in Beijing, China.

The occasion was the inaugural China-Africa Defense and Security Forum, a high-profile showcase of expanding military partnerships hosted by China’s Ministry of National Defense.

The forum, which concluded July 11, solidifies China’s standing as a key security partner for Africa and coincides with a raft of economic and political moves that have deepened its involvement across the continent.

Ideology, economics, politics

Paul Nantulya, a research associate at the Africa Center for Strategic Studies who focuses on China-Africa relations and security, told VOA that China’s military involvement in Africa blends ideology, economics and politics.

FILE - A medical team from the Chinese People’s Liberation Army meets with locals in Sierra Leone as they arrive close to the site of a mudslide on Sugar Loaf Mountain, in Freetown, Aug. 17, 2017.

China’s presence on the continent dates back to the liberation struggles of the 1960s, when it supported anti-colonial and anti-apartheid movements in South Africa, Algeria, Sudan and other countries based on what Nantulya called “ideological concerns.”

When former Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping came to power in the late 1970s, unprecedented reforms set the stage for China’s ascent as an economic powerhouse.

China’s new global posture influenced its engagement in Africa, Nantulya said, bringing economic and political layers to relationships that had previously been one-dimensional.

“The military engagement that China has on the continent has become much more complex than merely just an extension of its ideological concerns,” Nantulya said.

“Increasingly, we’re also beginning to see military-to-military exchanges between African countries and China, and these exchanges cover a whole range of issues, from peacekeeping to disaster response, to military building, army building, professional military education,” he added. “So, it’s a much bigger portfolio.”

Clear goals

African military officials at the defense forum told CGTV, a Chinese state-run broadcaster, that they have well-defined expectations of their partnerships with China.

“What we require from China, which is made very clear, is for them to provide us with the partnership, with the support, with the expertise, with the technical capability, with the capacity-building, with infrastructure, for us to be able to do the job ourselves,” said Lt. Gen. Masanneh Nyuku Kinteh of the Gambia Armed Forces.

FILE - Zimbabweans wave flags while welcoming Chinese President Xi Jinping in Harare, Zimbabwe, Dec. 1, 2015. Xi visited Zimbabwe for a two-day State visit aimed at strengthening relationships between the two countries.

But if African nations see in China a strategic partner, China sees, at least in part, potential customers. That’s because China is a major player in the global weapons supply chain, Nantulya said, and it’s looking for markets.

Chinese manufacturers have used their growing presence in Africa, along with generous government subsidies, to produce military hardware that’s both cheaper and easier to maintain than their competitors.

Whereas Western countries focus on heavy hardware — jets, tanks, rockets — China’s niche has long been small arms, including pistols and AK-47 assault rifles, Nantulya said.

They sell these, along with ammunition, bullet-proof armor and unmanned aerial vehicles, not just to African militaries but also to police and intelligence forces.

FILE - A man rests next a video screen showing Chinese President Xi Jinping holding a rifle at an exhibition highlighting China’s achievements under five years of his leadership at the Beijing Exhibition Hall in the capital city, Oct. 23, 2017.

One example of a close arms relationship is with Sudan, a country whose military industry China helped develop. Algeria, Mozambique and Zimbabwe also import many Chinese arms. And that portfolio is becoming more diverse, including tank deals and accompanying technical training with South Sudan and Uganda, Nantulya said.

Party-to-party

China’s military engagements span the continent, from traditional partners such as Angola, Libya and Tanzania, to more recent relationships with Kenya, Ethiopia and Djibouti.

In each case, China seeks to strengthen its military-to-military connections with party-to-party ties, Nantulya said. “China invites officials of these ruling parties in these different countries to Beijing. This is a program that is run by the [Central] Party School,” he added, referring to the institution that trains officials for the country’s Communist Party.

Through this year-round program, China promotes its ideologies and large-scale initiatives, combining political propaganda with defense strategy and tactics.

One example in which many saw Chinese political and security interests mesh was the abrupt fall from power last November of Robert Mugabe, who had led Zimbabwe for 37 years. Many analysts suspected that China played a role in what some considered a military coup.

FILE - Chinese President Xi Jinping, right, shows Zimbabwe’s former President Robert Mugabe the way during a welcome ceremony outside the Great Hall of the People in Beijing, China, Aug. 25, 2014.

A visit by Constantino Chiwenga, then the chief of the military, to Beijing days before Mugabe was put under house arrest stoked those rumors. But shortly after Zimbabwe’s military seized control, Geng Shuang, a Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesperson, told Reuters that the visit “was a normal military exchange.”

Chiwenga now serves as Zimbabwe’s vice president.

‘Cult of defense’

China casts itself as a different kind of partner for African countries eager to see their sovereignty respected. Rather than make development aid contingent on political reforms or project overt military power, China pursues its security goals indirectly.

One venue that’s served as a springboard to a deepening military presence is the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), China’s trillion-dollar global development program, which has been the backdrop for many of China’s emerging relationships in Africa.

The BRI projects, including railways, dams, ports and a sprawling new free-trade zone in Djibouti, have the potential to accelerate Africa’s industrialization. In many cases, they also entail an ongoing Chinese presence and an investment that needs protecting.

FILE - National flags of China and Djibouti are seen in front of Djibouti International Free-Trade Zone before the inauguration ceremony in Djibouti, July 5, 2018.

“This is a huge — a massive — footprint,” Nantulya said. “And so China is coordinating its military approach to be able to secure some of those interests.”

China has also become more involved in peacekeeping missions to expand its military footprint.

“They’ve been much more willing to deploy peacekeepers in places like Sudan, in Darfur, [and in] South Sudan. They’ve been much more willing to take those kinds of risks. But those kinds of risks also come with demands,” Nantulya said.

No-strings-attached engagement without political preconditions has, so far, been an effective strategy for China. But it has also restricted the moves China can make and how it presents itself to prospective partners.

FILE - United Nations Chinese soldiers in the United Nations Mission to South Sudan march as they celebrate International Day of United Nations Peacekeepers, in Juba, May 29, 2017.

“China has been captive to what one would call a ‘cult of defense,’” Nantulya said.

That would preclude making pre-emptive strikes or other overt shows of power. China considers its base in Djibouti, for example, a “logistics facility.”

But China is part of an elite group of countries that has such overseas bases. And at least one stipulation accompanies all its deals: Countries must sever diplomatic ties with Taiwan, a country that China considers its own territory.

Equal partner

To build solidarity, China presents itself as a developing country on par with partners in South Asia, Latin America and Africa.

Maj. Gen. Ibrahima Dahirou Dembele from Mali highlighted shared interests at the Defense Forum, saying, “We are close to China both culturally and historically, and in facing challenges.”

But the size of China’s economy surpasses all of Africa combined, and a recent report by The New York Times on a port transfer in Sri Lanka shows that China can be an aggressive strategic partner.

FILE - A navy soldier in the People’s Liberation Army stands guard as Chinese citizens board the naval ship ‘Linyi’ at a port in Aden.

In the past decade, China has embraced a more assertive stance around the world, Nantulya said. That’s evident in its intelligence, defense and security strategies, and embedded in its foreign policy.

But China’s “equal partner” narrative has endured.

During a Defense and Security Forum speech that aired on CGTV, Wei Fenghe, China’s national defense minister, said, “China and Africa’s countries are developing nations. It’s truly fair to say that we are for a community of shared future.”

It’s a sentiment that recalls China’s ideologically driven involvement on the continent in the 1960s and continues to resonate, despite ambitions that have become far bigger and more complex Ashampoo Snap 6 0 4 Final

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