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This story accompanies a profile of the French exploit-selling firm Vupen in the April 9th issue of Forbes magazine.

A clever hacker today has to make tough choices. Find a previously unknown method for dismantling the defenses of a device like an iPhone or iPad, for instance, and you can report it to Apple and present it at a security conference to win fame and lucrative consulting gigs. Share it with HP's Zero Day Initiative instead and earn as much as $10,000 for helping the firm shore up its security gear. Both options also allow Apple to fix its bugs and make the hundreds of millions of iPhone and iPad users more secure.

But any hacker who happens to know one Bangkok-based security researcher who goes by the handle "the Grugq"--or someone like him--has a third option: arrange a deal through the pseudonymous exploit broker to hand the exploit information over to a government agency, don't ask too many questions, and get paid a quarter of a million dollars--minus the Grugq's 15% commission.

That iOS exploit price represents just one of the dozens of deals the Grugq (pictured above) has arranged in his year-old side career as a middle man for so-called "zero-day" exploits, hacking techniques that take advantage of secret vulnerabilities in software. Since he began hooking up his hacker friends with contacts in government a year ago, the Grugq says he's on track to earn a million in revenue this year. He arranged the iOS deal last month, for instance, between a developer and a U.S. government contractor. In that case, as with all of his exploit sales, he won't offer any other details about the buyer or the seller.

Even with the $250,000 payout he elicited for that deal, he wonders if he could have gotten more. "I think I lowballed it," he wrote to me at one point in the dealmaking process. "The client was too happy."

A six-figure price for a single hacking technique may sound extravagant, but it's hardly unique. Based on speaking with sources in this secretive but legal trade, I've assembled a rough price list for zero-day exploits below.

Each price assumes an exclusive sale, the most modern version of the software, and, of course, not alerting the software's vendor. Some fees might even be paid in installments, with each subsequent payment depending on the vendor not patching the security vulnerabilities used by the exploit.  In some cases the techniques would need to be used in combination to be effective.

An exploit's price factors in both how widely the target software is used as well as the difficulty of cracking it. A technique that allows a hacker to gain control of a Mac OSX machine after hacking an application might earn only a fraction of one that targets Windows, for instance, because of Windows' greater market share. But an iOS exploit pays more than one that targets Android devices partly because it requires defeating Apple's significantly tougher security features. That means most agencies can simply develop their own Android attacks, the Grugq says, while ones that can penetrate the iPhone are rare and pricey. For the Jailbreakme 3 iOS exploit created by the hacker Comex last year, the Grugq says he heard agencies would have been eager to pay $250,000 for exclusive use of the attack.

Who's paying these prices Western governments, and specifically the U.S., says the Grugq, who himself is a native of South Africa. He limits his sales to the American and European agencies and contractors not merely out of ethical concerns, but also because they pay more. "Selling a bug to the Russian mafia guarantees it will be dead in no time, and they pay very little money," he says, explaining that he has no contacts in the Russian government. "Russia is flooded with criminals. They monetize exploits in the most brutal and mediocre way possible, and they cheat each other heavily."

As for China, he says that the country has too many hackers who sell only to the Chinese government, pushing down prices. "The market is very depressed," he says. Other regions like the Middle East and the rest of Asia can't match Western prices either.

As a result, the Grugq earns 80% of his revenue from the U.S., though occasionally the developers who work with him have asked that he sell only to Europeans. Over more than a decade in the hacker scene, he's met enough federal agents to have contacts at multiple U.S. agencies, and he knows how to package his developer's exploits for sale to those buyers, with professional marketing and support. "You’re basically selling commercial software, like anything else. It needs to be polished and come with documentation," he says. "The only difference is that you only sell one license, ever, and everyone calls you evil."

One of the most vocal of those critics is Chris Soghoian, a privacy activist with the Open Society Foundations, who has described the firms and individuals who sell software exploits as "the modern-day merchants of death" selling "the bullets of cyberwar."

"As soon as one of these weaponized zero-days sold to governments is obtained by a ‘bad guy’ and used to attack critical U.S. infrastructure, the shit will hit the fan," Soghoian warned in a talk at the Kaspersky analyst summit in February. "Security researchers should not be selling zero-days to middle man firms...These firms are cowboys and if we do nothing to stop them, they will drag the entire security industry into a world of pain."

The Grugq sees no ethical compromise in his work. "The Chinese are conducting espionage on a massive scale. [Soghoian] wants to ban sales of software--sorry, exploits--to the U.S. and European allies" he asks. "The only possible outcome is that the Chinese will increase their internal production and skills and the...West will fall behind."

Anyway, he adds, he doesn't believe banning the sale of exploit code would make users more secure. "That'll work just as well at eliminating exploits as the war on drugs has worked at eliminating drugs," he says.

The Grugq is hardly alone in his industry. Small firms like Vupen, Endgame and Netragard buy and sell exploits, as do major defense contractors like Northrop Grumman and Raytheon.

Netragard's founder Adriel Desautels says he's been in the exploit-selling game for a decade, and describes how the market has "exploded" in just the last year.  He says there are now "more buyers, deeper pockets," that the time for a purchase has accelerated from months to weeks, and he's being approached by sellers with around 12 to 14 zero-day exploits every month compared to just four to six a few years ago.

Desautels won't offer much about exactly who his customers are. But he says not every buyer aims to use his zero-days for spying. He claims to have recently sold a browser exploit for $125,000 to a private sector client for who aimed to use it merely as a proof-of-concept for marketing purposes. Other buyers use Netragard's exploits for penetration testing, he says. "If you test a bullet proof vest, you use a bullet, not a squirt gun," says Desautels.

Nonetheless, he says that the firm is "extremely careful" about choosing its customers. "We reject a lot more people than we accept," he says. "Realistically, we’re selling cyberweaponry."

And what about the option of selling the exploits to the software vendor itself, so that it can patch the targeted program Firms like Mozilla and Facebook offer developers a few thousand dollars for reporting bugs. Google typically offers a maximum of $3,133.70 for information about the most complex flaws in its software, a number that's meant to spell out "elite" in hacker slang.

But a four-figure price is hardly elite enough for the Grugq. "If they want their bugs fixed, they can buy them at market rates like everyone else," he says. "From each according to their ability, to each according to their needs That’s communism. If they want the output, they can pay for it like anyone else. They have my email."

Follow me on Twitter, and check out my new book, This Machine Kills Secrets: How WikiLeakers, Cypherpunks and Hacktivists Aim To Free The World’s Information Activation - Windows 8 build 9200 ALL



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I have been a long time fan of Poser. So now I upgraded from Poser Pro 2014, which I have reviewed in this forum. For a complete overview of Poser, see my earlier reviews. One of the biggest features of Poser Pro 11 that I must comment on is the improved subdivision surfaces. Now, older Poser figures (such as Poser 4 and 5 figures) and DAZ Studio figures will subdivide correctly allowing greater possibilities. Before in earlier versions of Poser older figures would subdivide, but would often have defects. The improved subdivision now also allows you to create morph targets for the subdivided versions of the figures which means you have much more detail in creating morph targets. If for example you want to create small spikes on the skin of a figure, you can subdivide the figure to the resolution you want and create a spike morph for the figure on that level of subdivision. And the subdivision will sort of work even on lower levels of sub D but obviously you will want to use the morph for the level it was created for since of course, the lower levels may not morph correctly. Morph targets can now be created as separate files without the need to export original geometry as well. These are good for creating what are called injection files for morph targets for Poser and DAZ figures. Exporting the actual geometry, as you may know, is a big no-no if you intend to sell anything you create in Poser or DAZ. You can now more easily create morph targets and sell the morphs without exporting or selling any original copyrighted geometry.The Superfly engine is the other great improvement in Poser Pro 11. This is a cycles style render engine which allows you to create even more realistic renders than ever before. The engine is a type of ray tracing engine that utilizes your computer video card. It really is quite a different render engine. For those of you familiar with DAZ Studio 3D this is Poser's equivalent of the NVIDIA Iray engine. But don't worry, for those of you who love the old Firefly render engine, that still remains and that still gives great renders. But Superfly handles such things as caustics, volumetrics, and ambient lighting and occlusion better than the Firefly engine does. But user beware, a different render engine gives different render results. Some textures and procedural shaders don't work the same way in the new engine, so you will have to adapt textures and procedural shaders for use with the Superfly engine. In fact the texture or materials room in Poser now has a node setup to support both render engines. For example glass and transparency shaders work differently in both Superfly and Firefly engines. And this is because the render engines use different lighting models and thus give different render results. So for any project, you will have to decide which render engine you will use for that project. If you intend to use both, then you will have to make sure your textures, shaders, and lighting setup will work with both render engines to give similar results. In which case, you might want to save two versions of your Poser project, one using the Firefly and the other using Superfly, that way you can set up textures and lighting for each of the renders to get the best results you want.Poser Pro 11 also introduces yet two new figures to play with. Paul and Pauline are the two newest additions to the Poser lineup of human figures. This in addition to all the other figures Rex and Roxie of Poser 10/Pro 2014, Allyson and Ryan (and ethnic variants) in Poser 9/Pro 2012, and Jesse, James, Ben, Kate, Creech, the Project Human figures, and so on. And of course, any 3D app that supports .cr2 files such as DAZ Studio will work in Poser as well, so all your Genesis figures will work, Victoria and Michael will work in Poser as well. So if you like DAZ figures, but like Poser working environment better you can certainly have the freedom to do that, and vice versa, Poser figures in standard .cr2 format work well in DAZ too.The morph sculpting tool for example is one reason why you might want to use Victoria or Michael in Poser. You can create sculpted morph targets for your DAZ figure and then reimport the morphed figure back into DAZ. I made children figures out of Poser 4 male and female adult figures, by adjusting their body proportions (using the figure proportion tool and the scale dials) and then sculpted the bodies to make the figures childlike and they worked beautifully in both Poser and DAZ.The possibilities are nearly endless.***** Update 01/03/2018 *******Poser Pro is now up to Poser Pro 11.1

One of the big new things to come with Version of 11.1 is the introduction of new ethnic Paul and Pauline figures. Like the Allyson and Ryan figures of Poser 8 or 9, Version 11.1 now sports African, East Asian, and Hispanic variants of their Paul and Pauline figures, and they also include a few more morph targets to introduce variety into the figures. But don't worry, if you like the original Paul and Pauline, these are still included and of course, the new Paul and Pauline figures are fully morphable where you can sculpt your own morph targets and make your own texture maps and the like for the figures Easy Animator

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Pros

It's an antivirus product with a name that used to mean something positive.

Cons

Do you like popupsDo you like YOUR PERSONAL EMAILS BEING HIJACKED FOR MARKETING PURPOSES! AVG Does all this (and probably more!) but I'm uninstalling today to put an end to the joke that was giving them a second chance.

Seriously though, what are they thinking by adding a custom "AVG" signature to all emails I send. Unbelievable.

Summary

I used to use AVG free several years back and it was honestly pretty good.Lightweight, un-intrusive, everything you could want out of a civilian level antivirus product.Then they spammed popups for upgrading to the full version and it got pretty annoying so I went a different direction for a few years; I had heard they got bought out by a competitor but it was honestly really sad to see them change their business model.I decided to give them a shot after reading the CNET reviews but JESUS CHRIST: adding a signature to my personal outgoing emails in an attempt to market their software is the absolute opposite of a good marketing strategy.

Created an account on CNET just to try to warn people to steer clear. Ranked .5 stars because I can't rank 0/5 stars.

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Pros

Tried it, and didn't like it. It does work fairly well as long as you don't try to remove it.

Cons

I uninstalled Avast and tried AVG. I used it years ago, and don't remember why I stopped. I just don't care for the intrusive attitude of the software, though you have to deal with a certain amount with all freeware. When I uninstalled, well that's where the trouble starts. AVG won't uninstall. It no longer shows in my uninstall list (I use Iobit uninstaller), but it's there every time I boot up. I'm not a wiz Kid, but I come from the old DOS days, started with a TRS-80. I've seen some bad software over the years, but this one takes the cake. Any antivirus that actively intimidates by refusing to allow you to uninstall, is a virus itself. At the very least, malware. Don't bother going to their website for advice, that's a joke as well. Between Comodo and AVG. it's a close race as to which one is worse. Leave this one by the roadside folks.

Summary

AVG is nothing more than malware, and one step away from being ransomware.

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Was this review helpful -101   -101  

Pros

still a good antiviruse

Cons

bloatware. There were times my cpu monitor showed extended 100% usage. I have since removed AVG freeware from two of my laptops and switched to Avast freeware. I have no more high cpu usage and no more annoying AVG ads.
Also, if you thought Norton was a pain to remove, I had to run my unistaller 3 times to get everything of AVG removed.

Summary

So far Avast has been doing well. When the time comes, I have 3 more computers I will be switching from AVG.

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Pros

Better than nothing, I suppose.

Cons

I hate everything about it. Lots of annoying ads.

Summary

I never liked avast but there they went and turned AVG into avast. I hate the interface. I hate the overly complicated settings. I will probably stick with either Sophos Home or Bitdefender Free.

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Pros

Good Anti-Virus and Anti Malware

Cons

Resource hog. Annoying pop ups to upgrade. No way to turn it off. Very hard to uninstall.

Summary

This used to be my anti-virus for all my families PCs. Latest version was running 24% of my CPU cycles on an i5. High memory usage as well even when idle.
Extremely difficult to remove. In the process of user AVG removal tool now, after unintall failed. I'll run my ISPs provided anti virus before using AVG again.

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Pros

It works at blocking what it suppose to block I assume.

Cons

It is constantly putting up pop-up screens for no reason that try to sell you something. I downloaded this program to stop this stuff from happening and what I get is worse than what I am trying to prevent. All efforts to turn it off or bypass the problems are useless. I want my antivirus program to be invisible not intrusive.

Summary

I am searching for an alternative.

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Pros

Absolutely None

Cons

- Slow download (AVG server congestion)- Begins unstoppable scan upon install

- Almost impossible to remove

Summary

I installed this on Windows Vista. First, it took almost 30 minutes to download. Then after it was finally installed, AVG Free immediately began scanning, preventing the PC from being used for anything else. The scan could not be stopped or paused NO MATTER WHAT. Task Manager had no effect - the only way I could stop this monstrosity was to uninstall it via windows Add/Remove programs WHILE IT WAS RUNNING. I was unable to completely remove the entire program; I tried AVG's own "AVG Remover tool" but it only removed part of it. Ultimately I had to remove it manually, then use CCleaner to get rid of the junk that this turkey scattered throughout the Window's Registry.

The entire nightmare took hours! Save yourself the headache and look into another A/V. I ended up with Panda Free - not the most effective program, but at least it doesn't slow the machine down to a crawl and then commandeer it.

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Pros

This used to be good software, but now it's trash.

Cons

1.) email stopped working for a little while. I finally got it working and the first email I was able to send had "virus free- www.avg.com" in the signature. 2.) Disturbed, I call their support. The lady refused to help me because I hadn't paid for software. I explained that this software was tampering with my emails and this was beyond just a software issue but an absolute complaint. She then chose to respond to everything I said with, "I'm sorry. I can not help you if you aren't a paid customer. Go online to our help page." Over and over and over this was the response. 3.) I go to uninstall the program. It took a while to uninstall and then naturally, my computer restarted. To my unhappiness, AVG is still somehow on my computer.

WHAT THE CRAP IS THIS

Summary

Do not use this software. I don't know anything about the paid version, but the free version is acting like a virus itself. I will never use this software again dotNetFx40 Full setup exe

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